a)Universalism vs. particularism.
Universalism – the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification
Particularism – is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied
-cultures with high universalism are focused more on formal rules then on relationships (USA, Australia, Germany, Sweden and UK)
-cultures with high particularism are focused on relationships and trust rather than on formal rules (Indonesia, Venezuela, China)
b)Individualism vs. communitarianism.
Individualism – people regarding themselves as individuals
Communitarianism – people regarding themselves as part of a group
-cultures with high individualism emphasis on larger responsibilities and more income (Canada, Thailand, UK, USA)
-cultures with high communitarianism emphasis on the group of people they are working with (Malaysia, Korea)
c)Neutral vs. emotional.
Neutral – emotions are held in check, not showing the feelings, acting socially but maintaining their composure (Japan, UK)
Emotional – emotions are openly and naturally expressed, people smile, talk loudly when they are excited, great each other with enthusiasm (Mexico, The Netherlands, Switzerland)
d)Specific vs. diffuse.
Specific – individuals have a large public space they readily let others enter and share a small private space they guard closely and share only with only with close friends and associates; separation between work and private life (Austria, UK, USA, and Switzerland)
Diffuse – public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well; work and private life are closely linked (Venezuela, China, and Spain)
d)Achievement vs. ascription.
Achievement – people accorded status, based on how well they perform their functions; company’s no. 1 salesperson has the highest status and consideration (Austria, USA, UK, and Switzerland)
Ascription – status is attributed based on what a person is; status based on respect for age and longevity within the company or in regard with the position of the friends he has (Venezuela, Indonesia, and China)
e)Sequential vs. synchronic.Sequential – people tend to do only one activity at the time, keep appointments strictly showing a strong preference for following plans as they are laid out and not deviating from them (USA)
Synchronic – people tend to do more than one activity at the time, appointments are approximate and may be changed at a moment’s notice; schedules subordinate to relationships (Mexico, France)
Past or present-oriented – value the history and traditions (Venezuela, Indonesia, Spain)
Future-oriented – value opportunities, need to have deadlines for getting things done (USA, Italy, Germany)
f)Internal vs. external control.Internal control – people are in control of their own life/nature (USA, Switzerland, and Australia)
External control – nature or other circumstances control people’s life (Singapore, Japan, China)
Intercultural Management by Anne Keizer and Latifa Benhadda