Trompenaar’s dimensions

a)Universalism vs. particularism.
Universalism – the belief that ideas and practices can be applied everywhere without modification
Particularism – is the belief that circumstances dictate how ideas and practices should be applied
-cultures with high universalism are focused more on formal rules then on relationships (USA, Australia, Germany, Sweden and UK)
-cultures with high particularism are focused on relationships and trust rather than on formal rules (Indonesia, Venezuela, China)

b)Individualism vs. communitarianism.
Individualism – people regarding themselves as individuals
Communitarianism – people regarding themselves as part of a group
-cultures with high individualism emphasis on larger responsibilities and more income (Canada, Thailand, UK, USA)
-cultures with high communitarianism emphasis on the group of people they are working with (Malaysia, Korea)

c)Neutral vs. emotional.
Neutral – emotions are held in check, not showing the feelings, acting socially but maintaining their composure (Japan, UK)
Emotional – emotions are openly and naturally expressed, people smile, talk loudly when they are excited, great each other with enthusiasm (Mexico, The Netherlands, Switzerland)

d)Specific vs. diffuse.
Specific – individuals have a large public space they readily let others enter and share a small private space they guard closely and share only with only with close friends and associates; separation between work and private life (Austria, UK, USA, and Switzerland)
Diffuse – public space and private space are similar in size and individuals guard their public space carefully, because entry into public space affords entry into private space as well; work and private life are closely linked (Venezuela, China, and Spain)

d)Achievement vs. ascription.
Achievement – people accorded status, based on how well they perform their functions; company’s no. 1 salesperson has the highest status and consideration (Austria, USA, UK, and Switzerland)
Ascription – status is attributed based on what a person is; status based on respect for age and longevity within the company or in regard with the position of the friends he has (Venezuela, Indonesia, and China)

Time
e)Sequential vs. synchronic.
Sequential – people tend to do only one activity at the time, keep appointments strictly showing a strong preference for following plans as they are laid out and not deviating from them (USA)
Synchronic – people tend to do more than one activity at the time, appointments are approximate and may be changed at a moment’s notice; schedules subordinate to relationships (Mexico, France)
Past or present-oriented – value the history and traditions (Venezuela, Indonesia, Spain)
Future-oriented – value opportunities, need to have deadlines for getting things done (USA, Italy, Germany)

Environment
f)Internal vs. external control.
Internal control – people are in control of their own life/nature (USA, Switzerland, and Australia)
External control – nature or other circumstances control people’s life (Singapore, Japan, China)

Intercultural Management by Anne Keizer and Latifa Benhadda

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